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Instructional design ID , also known as instructional systems design ISD , is the practice of systematically designing, developing and delivering instructional products and experiences, both digital and physical, in a consistent and reliable fashion toward an efficient, effective, appealing, engaging and inspiring acquisition of knowledge.
The outcome of this instruction may be directly observable and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed. As a field, instructional design is historically and traditionally rooted in cognitive and behavioral psychology , though recently constructivism has influenced thinking in the field.
There are also those who cite that, aside from behaviorist psychology, the origin of the concept could be traced back to systems engineering. The impact of each of these fields is difficult to quantify, however, it is argued that the language and the "look and feel" of the early forms of instructional design and their progeny were derived from this engineering discipline.
The role of systems engineering in the early development of instructional design was demonstrated during World War II when a considerable amount of training materials for the military were developed based on the principles of instruction, learning, and human behavior.
Tests for assessing a learner's abilities were used to screen candidates for the training programs. After the success of military training, psychologists began to view training as a system and developed various analysis, design, and evaluation procedures. The article describes how to write objectives including desired behavior, learning condition, and assessment. In , a committee led by Benjamin Bloom published an influential taxonomy with three domains of learning: cognitive what one knows or thinks , psychomotor what one does, physically and affective what one feels, or what attitudes one has.
These taxonomies still influence the design of instruction. In contrast to norm-referenced tests in which an individual's performance is compared to group performance, a criterion-referenced test is designed to test an individual's behavior in relation to an objective standard. In , after analyzing the failure of training material, Michael Scriven suggested the need for formative assessment — e. During the s, the number of instructional design models greatly increased and prospered in different sectors in military, academia, and industry.
David Merrill for instance developed Component Display Theory CDT , which concentrates on the means of presenting instructional materials presentation techniques. Although interest in instructional design continued to be strong in business and the military, there was little evolution of ID in schools or higher education.
The influence of constructivist theory on instructional design became more prominent in the s as a counterpoint to the more traditional cognitive learning theory.
Performance improvement was also seen as an important outcome of learning that needed to be considered during the design process.
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In this process, an instructional design project is prototyped quickly and then vetted through a series of try and revise cycles. This is a big departure from traditional methods of instructional design that took far longer to complete. Online learning became common.
In , the Association for Educational Communications and Technology AECT changed the definition of Educational Technology to "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources".
Academic degrees focused on integrating technology, internet, and human—computer interaction with education gained momentum with the introduction of Learning Design and Technology LDT majors. Informal learning became an area of growing importance in instructional design, particularly in the workplace. It also found that the learning output of informal learning is equal to that of formal training.
Similarly, instructional events should mirror the learning events:.
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He emphasized the design principles and procedures that need to take place for effective teaching and learning. His initial ideas, along with the ideas of other early instructional designers were outlined in Psychological Principles in Systematic Development , written by Roberts B. His definition of curriculum has been the basis of many important initiatives in schools and other educational environments.
Increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of practice was of particular concern. The concept of learning design arrived in the literature of technology for education in the late s and early s  with the idea that "designers and instructors need to choose for themselves the best mixture of behaviourist and constructivist learning experiences for their online courses".
Learning design might be defined as "the description of the teaching-learning process that takes place in a unit of learning e.
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As summarized by Britain,  learning design may be associated with:. This acronym stands for the 5 phases contained in the model Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. Over the years, the steps were revised and eventually the model itself became more dynamic and interactive than its original hierarchical rendition, until its most popular version appeared in the mids, as we understand it today. The five phases are listed and explained below: . Analyze — The first phase of content development is Analysis.
Analysis refers to the gathering of information about one's audience, the tasks to be completed, how the learners will view the content, and the project's overall goals. The instructional designer then classifies the information to make the content more applicable and successful. Design — The second phase is the Design phase. In this phase, instructional designers begin to create their project.
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Information gathered from the analysis phase, in conjunction with the theories and models of instructional design, is meant to explain how the learning will be acquired. For example, the design phase begins with writing a learning objective.
Tasks are then identified and broken down to be more manageable for the designer. The final step determines the kind of activities required for the audience in order to meet the goals identified in the Analyze phase.
Develop — The third phase, Development, involves the creation of the activities that will be implemented. It is in this stage that the blueprints of the design phase are assembled.
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Implement — After the content is developed, it is then Implemented. This stage allows the instructional designer to test all materials to determine if they are functional and appropriate for the intended audience.
Evaluate — The final phase, Evaluate, ensures the materials achieved the desired goals.
The evaluation phase consists of two parts: formative and summative assessment. The ADDIE model is an iterative process of instructional design, which means that at each stage the designer can assess the project's elements and revise them if necessary.
This process incorporates formative assessment , while the summative assessments contain tests or evaluations created for the content being implemented.
This final phase is vital for the instructional design team because it provides data used to alter and enhance the design. Connecting all phases of the model are external and reciprocal revision opportunities.
As in the internal Evaluation phase, revisions should and can be made throughout the entire process. Proponents suggest that through an iterative process the verification of the design documents saves time and money by catching problems while they are still easy to fix. This approach is not novel to the design of instruction, but appears in many design-related domains including software design, architecture, transportation planning, product development, message design, user experience design, etc.
For this reason many traditional methods of instructional design are beginning to be seen as incomplete, naive, and even counter-productive.
However, some consider rapid prototyping to be a somewhat simplistic type of model. As this argument goes, at the heart of Instructional Design is the analysis phase. After you thoroughly conduct the analysis—you can then choose a model based on your findings. That is the area where most people get snagged—they simply do not do a thorough-enough analysis.
Dick and Carey made a significant contribution to the instructional design field by championing a systems view of instruction, in contrast to defining instruction as the sum of isolated parts. The model addresses instruction as an entire system, focusing on the interrelationship between context, content, learning and instruction.
With this model, components are executed iteratively and in parallel, rather than linearly. Gabriel Ofiesh, a founding father of the Military Model mentioned above.
In , the Drs. Esseffs created an eLearning course to enable participants to take the GL course online under the direction of Dr. Learning theories also play an important role in the design of instructional materials. Theories such as behaviorism , constructivism , social learning and cognitivism help shape and define the outcome of instructional materials.
Motivation is defined as an internal drive that activates behavior and gives it direction. The term motivation theory is concerned with the process that describe why and how human behavior is activated and directed.
John Keller  has devoted his career to researching and understanding motivation in instructional systems.
These decades of work constitute a major contribution to the instructional design field. First, by applying motivation theories systematically to design theory. The model is based on Tolman's and Lewin's expectancy-value theory, which presumes that people are motivated to learn if there is value in the knowledge presented i. The first 2 of 4 key components for motivating learners, attention, and relevance can be considered the backbone of the ARCS theory, the latter components relying upon the former.
Within each of these categories, John Keller has provided further sub-divisions of types of stimuli to grab attention. Grabbing attention is the most important part of the model because it initiates the motivation for the learners. Once learners are interested in a topic, they are willing to invest their time, pay attention, and find out more.
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Relevance, according to Keller, must be established by using language and examples that the learners are familiar with. The three major strategies Keller presents are goal-oriented, motive matching, and familiarity. Like the Attention category, Keller divided the three major strategies into subcategories, which provide examples of how to make a lesson plan relevant to the learner.
Learners will throw concepts to the wayside if their attention cannot be grabbed and sustained and if relevance is not conveyed.
The confidence aspect of the ARCS model focuses on establishing positive expectations for achieving success among learners.
The confidence level of learners is often correlated with motivation and the amount of effort put forth in reaching a performance objective. For this reason, it's important that learning design provides students with a method for estimating their probability of success. This can be achieved in the form of a syllabus and grading policy, rubrics, or a time estimate to complete tasks.
Additionally, confidence is built when positive reinforcement for personal achievements is given through timely, relevant feedback. Finally, learners must obtain some type of satisfaction or reward from a learning experience. This satisfaction can be from a sense of achievement, praise from a higher-up, or mere entertainment.
Feedback and reinforcement are important elements and when learners appreciate the results, they will be motivated to learn. Satisfaction is based upon motivation, which can be intrinsic or extrinsic. To keep learners satisfied, instruction should be designed to allow them to use their newly learned skills as soon as possible in as authentic a setting as possible.
Along with the motivational components Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction the ARCS model provides a process that can address motivational problems. This process has 4 phases Analysis, Design, Development, and Evaluation with 10 steps within the phases:. Evaluate and revise . Includes reviewing the description of the course, the instructor, and way of delivery the information.