This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet.
Letter of the Commissioner of Education to the Secretary of the Interior 5 lutrodnctorj. C, October 27, Sir : 1 have the honor to recommend the publication of the accompa- nying manuscript, prepared by J. Toner, M. D,, founder of the Toner lectures in Washington, a writer on several important medical topics, and president of the American Medical Association. This compilation of biographical and historical notes concerning the lihysicians of the colonial times and the early days of American inde- pendence was undertaken by Dr.
Toner at the request of the Con- vention of School-Superintendents which met in Washington in , to consult with regard to the exhibition of the United States sys- tem of education at Vienna, with a view to its forming a part of that complete representation of the rise and progress as well as present condition of the system of education in the United States, professional and preparatory, which was thought desirable for the Vienna Exhibition.
The difficulties attending a compilation from such scattered and varied sources prevented its completion in season for Vienna. Prepared dur- ing the intervals of active professional work, it makes no claim to a methodical or exhaustive treatment of the subject; it however furnishes a mass of biographical and historical information now for the first time collected, which must make it a valuable contribution towards a history of the rise and progress of medical culture in this country, and most useful to other inquirers in the same field.
Its brief biographies of the early medical practitioners show how often the learned professions were united in the same learned man, who was at once physician, pastor, and teacher, and how medical science was at first traditional, the old practitioner instructing his one or two student-assistants in his own theories and methods and they in turn handing them down, with the added results of their own experience, to their successors.
The importance of correct methods of training for this profession, to' whose care more or less directly are committed the lives and health of all our people, cannot be overestimated.
This compilation furnishes the first steps for all who would pursue the instructive lessons of experience to their conclusion.
It is also sx ecially timely as an aid in presenting at the Centennial Exhibition the growth of this profession during the colonial period of our country's history. Toner has attempted for the period comprised in his own researches. Delano, Secretary of the Interior, Commissioner. Approved and publication ordered.
In response to the request of eminent educators, the following records and notes, which I have made, from time to time, on the rise and prog- ress of medical culture during the earliest years of the settlement of this country, are furnished, rather as memoranda for the use of those interested in similar studies, than as an attempt to push investigations to their conclusions or to follow exactness of method.
As the medical profession must always occupy an important, if not a conspicuous, position in the scientific and educational history of a nation, the present is deemed an opportune occasion to group together in a brief review some of the more notable names of medical men and important events in the history and progress of medicine in the United States, from the period of the first settlements to the close of the colo- nial governments, and in some instances down to the commencement of the present century.
For the first century, after successful settlements had been made on this continent, medicine, as a distinct branch of education, received but little consideration from legislators, and, as a profession and an art, was left wholly without protection, encouragement, or recognition. The school-house everywhere accompanied the pioneer, and academic institutions promptly sprang up in the interest of the various denomi- nations, and achieved reputation in not less than eight distinct settle- ments before the Ee volution.
But up to this period only two attempts to establish medical colleges had been made, and from these less than fifty young men had been graduated as bachelors and doctors of medicine. Many of the causes influencing this backwardness in home-professional education are appar- ent in the dependent attitude of the colonies and the state of the pro- fession in both hemispheres.
But few physicians were required by the healthy and laborious people, of steady habits, who first came to our shores. The sparseness of the population, which was gradually subduing the forest and planting set- tlements on the bays setting up from the Atlantic and along the rivers emptying into them, gave but little encouragement to the professional man. Education, particularly professional, requires means and leisure for its encouragement and a reasonable prosp ect of remunerative employ- ment.
Landgate wa practice manual for the maryland
Amongthe early settlers that came to Virginia and founded James- town in 1G07 was Dr. The doctor was among those who suffered severely from lack of food, living for a considerable time on crabs and sturgeon. Walter Eussell is mentioned as being with Captain Smith and ren- dering him professional services during the making of the survey of Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac Kiver. He attended an Indian chief,3 who had been shot in the knee, a brother of Hassininga, king of one of the four nations of the Maunahocks.
This expedition, consisting of Captain Smith, Dr. Russell, and thir- teen of the crew, after surveying the Chesapeake Bay, proceeded up the Potomac lUver to the Falls, some few miles above where now stands Washington City, the Capital of the United States. The residence of these physicians is presumed not to have been per. Lawrence Bohun studied hisprofession in the LowCountries, where the leading medical schools of that period were located, and found his way to Virginia as early as , and in is mentioned as physician- general of the colony.
In March of that year, Lord Delaware, who was seriously ill, sailed from Virginia to the West Indies for his health, ac- companied by Dr.
Technical report template
John Pot,' who was elected on the recommendation of Dr. Gulstone physi- cian-general of the Company, and the same year removed to the colony, of which he was made temporary governor in It is also a noticeable fact that many of the ships, per- haps all, trading with the settlements in the IS'ew Wo rid in the seventeenth century, carried with them a surgeon.
This was rendered necessary on account of the length of the voyage and the time expended in disposing of and collecting new cargoes. These surgeons were permitted while the ships were in port to practice among the people on shore. When the encouragement was sufficient, no doubt some of them remained or, returning, resided permanently.
William Cabell, a native of Great Britain, was educated to the profession of medicine ; came to America between and He died April 12, , aged The earliest law passed having special reference to the medical pro- fession was "An act to compel physicians and surgeons to declare on oath the value of their medicines," enacted October 21, 1G39, which was revised and amended at the session of '16, and again at the session of 'o8.
Video of 14 Herrick Drive- Ipswich Massachusetts real estate & homes by Carrie Cayer
John Mitchell, M. He was eminent as a botanist, as well as a physician ; and, besides numerous communications to the Royal Society, he published a work on botany, a history of the contest in America, printed in , and a treatise on the yellow fever.
The manuscript of the latter having fallen into the hands of Dr. Franklin, he transmitted it to Dr. Rush, at the time that yellow fever was epidemic in Philadelphia ; and, from the valuable suggestions contained in it. Rush was led into a new train 1 Upon examining the colonial laws and enactments, I find the following statutes re.
Mitcbell died about He was born in Scotland in and was educated for the medical staff of the British army. He was with General Braddock at the time of his defeat and assisted in dressing his wounds. While in the army, he formed with General then Colonel Washington an acquaintance which ripened into a friendship that continued through life.
Land Transactions toolkit
At the breaking out of the revolutionary war, Dr. Craik tendered his services to the American Army and after the surrender of York- town was appointed director-general of the hospital at that place. At the close of the war he was persuaded by Washington to settle at Alex- andria, near Mount Vernon. He remained the physician and friend of the general, and was with him at the time of his death. To him Wash, ington refers in his will, calling him " my compatriot in arms ; my old and intimate friend.
Hugh Mercer, a native of Scotland, was educated as a physician, and, having emigrated to this country, settled in Virginia.
He served in the French and Indian war and, being wounded at Fort Du Quesne, barely escaped capture by the enemy. He entered the American Army at the commencement of the Eevolution, and, having distinguished himself in various battles, was made brigadier-general. During the action at Princeton, on the 3d of January, , while endeavoring to rally his retreating troops, his horse was shot from under him and he severely wounded by the British troops, who surrounded and stabbed him with their ba3'onets.
He died January 19, , and was buried at Phila- delphia.
John Spencer was born and educated in Scotland. He was an alumnus of the University of Edinburgh.
Arriving in America towards the close of the last century, he settled at Dumfries, Va. Andrew Leiper was a resident of Richmond, where he died, Octo- ber 17, William Graham was surgeon's mate of Colonel Alexander Spotts- wood's regiment.
Technical report template
James McClurg, M. He practiced at Eichmond, Ya. Alexander Lajournade was commissioned surgeon's mate, March 15, , to Col. Charles Harrison's Virginia and Maryland Artillery. Shuball Pratt was surgeon in the Virginia Line, March 12, John Roberts was appointed surgeon's mate in G and promoted to surgeon the following year.
Jonathan Calvert was commissioned surgeon's mate November 30, G, in Col. Charles Harrison's Virginia and Maryland regiment of artillerj'.
James Carter, of Williamsburg, Va. William Carter, a native of Virginia, pursued his profession at Eichmond, Va. He was surgeon to the hospital located at Williamsburg, Va,, during the revolutionary war.
Thomas Chrystie served in the capacity of surgeon from April 1, , to the close of the wax.
John Clayton, a native of England, was educated to the profession of medicine, came to America early in the eighteenth century, and settled to practice in Gloucester County, Va. He was eminent in his profession and one of the leading botanists of the time.
Stephen Cooke was a surgeon in the revolutionary war and was taken prisoner and sent to Bermuda, where he married. He returned to Virginia, and practiced iu Loudoun County, Va. James Currie, a native of Scotland, received his diploma at Edinburgh. He emigrated, and practiced with reputation his profession for a long series of years at Eichmond, Va. John Baynham was a practitioner of note in Caroline County, Va.
William Baynham acquired distinction as a surgeon iu Virginia. He resided most of his life in Essex County, dying in the year , aged John Minson Gait, of Williamsburg; Va. He was the first physician i laced in charge of the lunatic- asylum established by the State in that town.
Someof his descendants have distinguished themselves in medicine. Cabin Gritlln, born in Virginia of Welsh descent, practiced in Yorktown. His brother, Cyrus Griffin, was the last president of the Continental Congress. Joseph Harding practiced with success at Portsmouth, Ya.
He died in , aged