- DETECTO Digital Height Rod / Stadiometer, Wall Mount, Measures up to 6 ft 7". MFID: DHRWM
- Impaired Visual Motor Coordination in Obese Adults
- Original Research ARTICLE
- The Stadiometer vs Wall measurement Error
- Journal of Obesity
- Cross-cultural comparison of motor competence in children from Australia and Belgium
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- Seca 216 stadiometer manual dexterity
Motor competence in childhood is an important determinant of physical activity and physical fitness in later life. However, childhood competence levels in many countries are lower than desired. Due to the many different motor skill instruments in use, children's motor competence across countries is rarely compared.
The sample consisted of Belgian children scored higher on jumping sideways, moving sideways and hopping for height but not for balancing backwards.
DETECTO Digital Height Rod / Stadiometer, Wall Mount, Measures up to 6 ft 7". MFID: DHRWM
Moreover, a Chi squared test revealed significant differences between the Belgian and Australian score distribution with When compared to normed scores, both samples scored significantly worse than children 40 years ago. The decline in children's motor competence is a global issue, largely influenced by increasing sedentary behavior and a decline in physical activity.
The ability to perform various motor skills e. Motor competence relies on motor coordination which refers to the cooperation between muscles or muscle groups to produce a purposeful action or movement Magill, , and physical fitness which refers to the capacity to perform physical activity Ortega et al.
These findings are of major concern as children with high motor competence have been linked with positive outcomes in both physical activity PA and weight status Lubans et al. Furthermore, motor competence predicts levels of PA and physical fitness in later life Barnett et al. In view of this, it is important to examine and monitor motor behavior during childhood in order to provide appropriate strategies to support children's motor development.
A variety of test instruments are used to measure motor competence during childhood see Cools et al.
The choice of assessment batteries depends on a number of criteria such as the purpose of measurement, age specificity, and the suitability of the test for the target group Cools et al. The popularity and implementation of test instruments also varies depending on the geographical region.
For example, in Australia, assessment batteries such as the Test of Gross Motor Development, Second Edition TGMD-2; Ulrich, , are generally used to measure motor competence of children through a set of fundamental motor skills e. Although motor tests measure the same broad construct i. For instance, a study of Fransen et al. These findings are similar to other convergent validity studies Smits-engelsman et al. Alternatively, the wide adoption of a highly standardized test battery, would enable comparison of motor competence within and between countries.
There is a dearth of research comparing children's motor competence between countries.
One study by Chow et al. These differences give insight into different cultural practices such as encouragement in some types of sport e. Clearly, cross-cultural research can provide valuable insights into how different motor skills are developed in different cultural contexts and how tests which measure specific motor skills are sensitive to cultural differences. In summary, it would be unwise to undertake comparisons using different assessment tools because the small, but significant, differences in measurement might not provide meaningful findings and valid conclusions.
As highlighted in the study of Chow et al. A better approach would be to adopt a standardized non sport specific test of motor competence across all countries. The KTK assesses motor coordination without a sport context and may therefore be such a suitable test. It is a standardized and popular test battery that makes it an appropriate tool to measure motor competence internationally and provide cross-cultural comparisons Iivonen et al.
Impaired Visual Motor Coordination in Obese Adults
There is evidence of streamlining of assessment and international collaborations in other areas of health and physical activity behavior. In an International Consensus Group met in Geneva with the purpose of developing a self-reported measure of physical activity which could be used to assess physical activity across countries.
It was recognized at that time that physical inactivity was a global health concern, but that there were no standardized approaches to measurement which made international comparisons and global surveillance challenging. Similarly, the wide adoption of a single test to measure motor competence, has the potential to build a strong picture of how children are performing on an international level rather than just on a national level.
Original Research ARTICLE
This will have many benefits in terms of understanding on a global level how motor competent children are and then proceeding to understand what cultural factors help to better facilitate motor competence. A secondary aim of this study was to compare the distribution of both samples across the KTK performance categories and against the reference population from A total of children Australian and Belgian children between the ages of 6 and 8 years participated.
In Melbourne, four schools were selected in four local council municipalities. In Flanders, children were recruited from five schools in different provinces. For each participant written informed consent was obtained from the parents or guardian. All assessments were conducted by trained assessors. For the tests, children were barefooted and wore light sport clothes.
First, anthropometric measurements height and weight were taken. Secondly, children's motor competence was assessed with the KTK.
The Stadiometer vs Wall measurement Error
In both countries, height and weight were measured with an accuracy of 0. KG, Hamburg, Germany. The KTK measures gross motor coordination in typically and atypically developing children, aged 5—14 years Kiphard and Schilling, , The psychometric quality of the KTK is good. Content and construct validity have been established for the general pediatric population Kiphard and Schilling, , In both countries the KTK was administered according to the manual guidelines Kiphard and Schilling, , The KTK consists of 4 outcome-based subtests.
Walking backwards WB requires participants to walk backwards along three different balance beams, with increasing levels of difficulty due to the width of the beams decreasing from 6 to 4.
Journal of Obesity
Three trials are given for each balance beam with a maximum score of 72 steps i. Hopping for height HH requires participants to hop on one leg over an increasing number of 5 cm foam blocks to a maximum of 12 blocks. Participants have to begin hopping 1. Three trials are given for each height with 3, 2, or 1 point s given for a successful performance during 1st, 2nd, or 3rd trial, respectively. Jumping sideways JS requires participants to complete as many sideways jumps as they can, with feet together, over a wooden slat in 15 s.
Moving sideways MS requires participants to move across the floor during 20 s using two wooden platforms. Participants step from one platform to the next, move the first platform, step on to it, and repeat the same process as much as possible in 20 s. Two trials are given for both jumping sideways and moving sideways.
The KTK requires little time to set-up and takes approximately 15—20 min to administer. Using the normative data of the German sample, raw item scores were converted into standardized scores adjusting for age all items and sex hopping for height and jumping sideways over a slat.
In turn, standardized score items were summed and transformed into a total MQ. Descriptive statistics were calculated for anthropometric measures height, weight, and BMI and KTK scores raw and standardized scores.
Cross-cultural comparison of motor competence in children from Australia and Belgium
We first investigated whether differences in distribution across BMI categories based on the International Obesity Task Force cut-off values were similar for both the Australian and Belgian sample. Since weight status is associated with motor competence Lubans et al. Significant interaction and main effects were further investigated with Bonferroni post-hoc tests or pairwise comparisons.
Separate models were used for the item MQs and total MQ, i. Finally, a chi squared test was used to compare the distributions of Australian and Belgian children across the KTK performance categories impaired, poor, normal, good, high. Additionally, chi squared analysis was used to compare the observed distribution of both samples with the expected distribution based on the German reference sample. BMI was shown to be a significant covariate. Interaction and main effects on KTK performance according to country and age group.
The proportion of children scoring in the normal range of motor competence differed between Australia and Belgium Moreover, the percentage of Australian children performing below average was higher compared with Belgian children.
The proportion of children scoring above average was similar for the Australian and Belgian sample. In contrast, the percentages of Australian and Belgian children performing above average are lower compared to the children of the German sample 7.
Proportion of children across KTK performance ratings for both countries. The main aim of this study was to compare the motor competence of 6 to 8 year old children from Australia and Belgium using the KTK.
A secondary aim was to compare the Australian and Belgian samples across the different performance categories of the KTK. Overall, children from Belgium demonstrated a higher level of motor competence. Looking at the raw scores, Belgian children scored significantly better than the Australian children on three of the four individual tasks: moving sideways, jumping sideways and hopping for height.
Seca 216 stadiometer manual dexterity
These tasks required a combination of lateral, upper, and lower body coordination. It has been suggested that measuring motor competence especially when using a product based assessment also evaluates some elements of a child's physical fitness such as strength, speed, endurance, and flexibility.
Our findings might therefore indicate that Belgian children are more fit than Australian children.
This may explain why Australian children scored higher on the walking backwards task as this is less sensitive to physical fitness. The other three tests involve both coordination and aspects of physical fitness meaning that physical fitness may be a confounding factor to motor coordination.
Results also showed that differences in motor performance between both countries were independent of age. As expected, age was found to influence motor competence within the groups, attesting to the quality of the KTK as a test battery. We also found BMI had a significant negative association in each model reinforcing previous literature on the inverse relationship between weight status and motor competence D'Hondt et al.
This points to the importance of adequate motor competence for children's healthy weight status as indicated in the model of Stodden et al. In an effort to explain why Australian children generally scored lower than their Belgian counterparts, and why both countries scored significantly lower when compared to German norms, we adopted the three constraints based model as a framework which shapes motor development Newell, Descriptive data showed that both samples had similar sex distributions and anthropometric characteristics, although the Belgian children were on average 3 months younger which is why the difference in raw scores do not appear meaningful as they have not accounted for age.
The KTK is a test of gross motor coordination, as such the tasks were novel for all children taking part. It is therefore likely that the PA contexts such as physical education PE in pre-school and primary school played a role in the differences observed in the KTK performance.
Early childhood is described as the optimal time to develop motor skills and establish motor competence Hardy et al. Overall, Australia is performing poorly in its ability to meet a set of minimum standards for children in their formative years when compared to other countries from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Therefore, the lower levels of motor performance observed in Australian children at the age of 6 years may be due to pre-school experiences, or the lack of them prior to beginning primary school.
In both countries, PE may be the main vehicle for developing children's motor competence in primary schools. Differences in policies and common practices in PE may explain the higher motor scores found in Belgian children.