Different Types Of Computers Pdf Merge

Different types of computers pdf merge

Supercomputers are fast because they are actually many computers working together.

Different types of computers pdf merge

Supercomputers were introduced in the 's as the world's most advanced computer. These computers were used for complex calculations such as forecasting weather and quantum physics.

Different types of computers pdf merge

Today, supercomputers are one of a kind; they are fast and very advanced. The term supercomputer is always evolving as tomorrow's normal computers are today's supercomputer.

It consists of 40, CPUs each with processing cores a quad-core has four. Although it is energy efficient, supercomputers are still room-sized machines.

The All-Powerful Personal Computer

Mainframes are computers in which all the processing is done centrally, and the user terminals are called "dumb terminals" since they only input and output and do not process. In modern systems, a PC or a web app often acts as the dumb terminal.

Mainframes are computers used mainly by large organizations for critical applications, typically bulk data processing such as a census. Examples: banks, airlines, insurance companies, and colleges. They support hundreds of users simultaneously.

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You are much more likely to use a mainframe in your professional career today than a supercomputer. Today, mainframes exist as a concept more than as hardware.

NASA unplugs last mainframe. The server processes are devoted to sharing files and managing access rights.

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A server is a central computer that contains collections of data and programs. Also called a network server, this system allows all connected users to share and store electronic data and applications. Two important types of servers are file servers and application servers. An application server hosts various applications or programs that you can use without having to install them directly on your system.

At SRU, once you have installed the Citrix client interface the Citrix server s provide access to many applications used across campus.

Different types of computers pdf merge

Web apps, like Google Docs , work in essentially the same way. A file server manages your files. At SRU, the H: home drive and I: classworks drives show up on any computer you log into as "network drives".

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These files are not actually located on your computer's hard disk, but appear to be so. A web server is essentially a file server located somewhere in the Internet. You request files or web pages by clicking on a hyper link or typing in a URL. The file is displayed by your browser as a web page.

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Much of the web has been developed using this client-server model. Example client request for the SRU home page:. Although "the cloud" is not a single computer system, it seems that this is a good place to discuss it.

First, it is worth noting that servers are also often not a single computing system.

Different types of computers pdf merge

All of our Google queries aren't sent to a single machine on the Internet, but it acts that way. This is somewhat like cloud services in fact Google offers cloud services. In cloud computing , your PC acts as a client, perhaps with little more hardware and software than is needed to run an operating system and a web browser.

Cloud applications are run on some unknown application server in the Internet and your data is stored on some unknown file server in the Internet. This offers the potential of significant costs savings, especially in business settings where you otherwise have to have many computers, each with their own hardware and software. Workstations are high-end, expensive computers that are made for complex procedures and are intended for one user at a time. Some of the complex procedures consist of science, math and engineering calculations and are useful for computer design and manufacturing.

Different types of computers pdf merge

Workstations are sometimes improperly named for marketing reasons. Real workstations are not usually sold in retail.

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In current terminology, a desktop personal computer or even a terminal connected to a server, mainframe, or network is often called a workstation. In addition, the line separating workstations from personal computers is blurring as PCs become more powerful and workstations become cheaper. Picture taken circa early Its physical characteristics and low cost are appealing and useful for its users. The capabilities of a personal computer have changed greatly since the introduction of electronic computers.

Different types of computers pdf merge

By the early s, people in academic or research institutions had the opportunity for single-person use of a computer system in interactive mode for extended durations, although these systems would still have been too expensive to be owned by a single individual. The introduction of the microprocessor, a single chip with all the circuitry that formerly occupied large cabinets, led to the proliferation of personal computers after about Early personal computers, generally called microcomputers, were sold often in kit form and in limited volumes and were of interest mostly to hobbyists and technicians.

By the late s, mass-market pre-assembled computers allowed a wider range of people to use computers, focusing more on software applications and less on development of the processor hardware.

Throughout the s and s, home computers were developed for household use, offering some personal productivity, programming and games, while somewhat larger and more expensive systems although still low-cost compared with mainframes called workstations were aimed for office and small business use.

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Today a personal computer is an all rounded device that can be used as a productivity tool, a media server and a gaming machine.

The modular construction of the personal computer allows components to be easily at least for desktop units swapped out when broken or upgraded.

Although occasionally "PC" is used to refer to the family of computers descended from the original IBM-PC, it is now typically used for any general purpose computing platform available according to price for the home market, including laptops and Apple computers.

Smartphones are hand-held computers. The current generation of smartphones run an amazing array of applications, making them quite general purpose.

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They have a keyboard and touch screen for input, with only a screen for output. Bluetooth wireless networking the same you may use for a phone headset handles the problem of connecting peripherals, and the Internet, which can be viewed as both an input and an output device for our purposes, handles more. The number of mature applications for smartphones is growing rapidly as is cloud computing.

We have talked about the convergence of technologies in computing devices for years. We seem to be at the cusp of change in , with a plethora of mobile devices, such as the Xoom and the iPad 2 there is even a game system that makes phone calls , attempting to tap into the same market as smartphones, book readers and even laptops.

Without the benefit of a crystal ball, I predict that the range of hand-held devices in the future will mimic the range of laptops and netbooks today. You will choose based on your primary use and cost, while hoping the company you work for provides you with a high-end device. These single circuit devices have minimal memory and program length but can be integrated with other processors for more complex functionality.

Many such systems are known as Embedded Systems. Examples of embedded systems include cell phones and car safety and control systems. Embedded systems are limited to specific tasks, but are often part of a much more complex system.

5 Categories of Computer Types and Components

Introduction to Computers Types of Computers [ src ] Supercomputer. IBM's Watson supercomputer destroys all humans in Jeopardy. Mainframe Mainframes are computers in which all the processing is done centrally, and the user terminals are called "dumb terminals" since they only input and output and do not process. Server Servers are similar to mainframes in that they serve many uses with the main difference that, usually, the users called clients do much of their own processing.

A server with clients. This diagram could also be used for the mainframe, if the client computers were dumb terminals.

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Who said everything has to be serious? Cloud Computing Although "the cloud" is not a single computer system, it seems that this is a good place to discuss it. Workstation Workstations are high-end, expensive computers that are made for complex procedures and are intended for one user at a time. Perhaps the first computer that might qualify as a "workstation" was the IBM Server vs desktop.

Smartphones Smartphones are hand-held computers. Other devices We have talked about the convergence of technologies in computing devices for years.

Supercomputers

Microcontroller Microcontrollers are mini computers that enable the user to store data and do simple commands and tasks with little or no user interaction with the processor. What is a Microcontroller Recommended! A great introduction to the next module.